As today, China education is the largest education system in the whole world.
On June 2021, there were 10.71 million students taking the National Higher Education Entrance Examination (Gaokao) in China. Investment in education accounts for 4.04% of total GDP in China.
According to educational statistics, in 2020, there were 537,100 schools of all kinds and at all levels in China, with 289 million students and 17,921,800 full-time teachers.
In 1986, the Chinese government passed a compulsory education law, making nine years of education mandatory for all Chinese children. Today, the Ministry of Education estimates that above 99 percent of school-aged children have received universal nine-year basic education.
On Feb 2020, Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China announced that a total of 397,635 international students were studying in China in 2019. International students have enrolled in over 811 higher education institutions in China. China has a long history of providing education to international students studying in high schools and universities. Over the past few years, the number of international students studying in China has significantly increased on a yearly basis.
The higher education sector has witnessed growth as well. China has increased the proportion of its college-age population in higher education to over 20 percent now from 1.4 percent in 1978. At the same time, China is improving the quality of education through a major effort at school curriculum reform.
China has a consistent teacher development system. Teaching has historically been and remains today a highly respected profession in China. Teachers have strong preparation in their subject matter and prospective teachers spend a great deal of time observing the classrooms of experienced teachers, often in schools attached to their universities. Once teachers are employed in schools, there is a system of induction and continuous professional development in which groups of teachers work together with professors on lesson plans and improvement.
Education system in China
1) Pre-school Education in China
Pre-school education is an important component of education cause in China. In urban areas, there are mainly kindergartens of three years, two years or one year which could be full time, part-time, boarding or hour-reckoned.
In 2020, there were 291,700 kindergartens in China. The number of children in kindergartens was 17.914 million, and the number of children in kindergartens was 48.1826 million. There are 2,913,400 full-time teachers in kindergartens. The gross enrollment rate of preschool education is 85.2%.
2) Primary and Secondary Education in China
Since the promulgation of the Compulsory Education Law of the People’s Republic of China in 1986, the nine-year compulsory education has been implemented by governments at various levels and it has made significant progress.
Nine-year compulsory education policy in China enables students over six years old nationwide to get free education at both primary schools (grade 1 to 6) and junior secondary schools (grade 7 to 9). The policy is funded by government and tuition is free. Schools still charge miscellaneous fees. Senior secondary school (grade 10 to 12) and college education are not compulsory or free in China.
By 2020, there were 210,800 schools providing compulsory education nationwide. A total of 34.4019 million students were enrolled, including 156 million students. There were 10,294,900 full-time teachers. The retention rate of nine-year compulsory education is 95.2%.
By 2020, there were 24,400 senior high schools in China. The enrollment was 15.05 million, and the total number of students was 41.78 million. The gross enrollment rate of senior high school is 91.2%.
3) Higher Education in China
Higher education in China has played an important role in the economic construction, science progress and social development by bringing up large scale of advanced talents and experts for the construction of socialist modernization.
In 2020, there were 2,738 regular colleges and universities in China. Among them, 1270 are undergraduate institutions (including 21 vocational schools at undergraduate level); There are 1,468 higher vocational colleges. A total of 41.83 million students attended higher education in various forms, and the gross enrollment rate of higher education was 54.4 percent.
(Data from Ministry of Education of China)